Froome's teammates had set a fast tempo that prevented others from attacking-a tactic that prepared the ground for Froome's expected assault in the steep final section leading to the finish in the ski station of Peyragudes.
Stage 10 was, as one of them sagely noted, "The stage of the chateaux".
Aru now leads Froome by six seconds, with Bardet just 25 seconds behind.
After his move with Voeckler was caught, Barguil sat in with the leaders for most of the climb of the Col de Latrape.
That leaves Martin in sixth place overall.
He said he had visited the ski station with his parents to scout out the final climb. It did too - you could see it in the pictures.
"Yesterday (Thursday) was a difficult day for me but today I felt a lot better and we played a good strategic game with our team". However near the summit he attacked again, accelerating up to more than 30kmh to draw Alberto Contador and Mikel Landa out of the group of favourites. Barguil took the sprint easily and the wait was on to see what the time gaps would be back to the other contenders. It's also been a long time since someone from Brittany has won a stage on the Tour.
In terms of the battle for the yellow jersey, Froome said there was less pressure on his Team Sky team during the shorter race. "We're ready for that".
Froome looked imperious in his three Tour victories in 2013, 2015 and last year, never giving his rivals a chance.
Quintana complained of fatigue having raced in May's Giro d'Italia, while Contador crashed four times over the first 11 stages. "I didn't have the legs in the finale, but there is still a long way to go", Froome told reporters.
"He's a real challenger now for the overall title in Paris, and it's a great card for us to play especially when Astana don't have the numbers to control the race". "He'll definitely try some more", Astana manager Alexandre Vinokourov said.
Barguil and Kwiatkowski then pushed on on the 12.7km descent of the Agnes, Kwiatkowski hitting 95kmh on one straight section midway down the climb.
"I feel like I have dual nationality - French and Breton - so I'm really happy". Awarded another first serve, he managed only a 113 mph offering that Querrey handled easily, and the next stroke was a badly missed backhand by Cilic.